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Saturday, August 04, 2018

Drugs

8月4号 - 出院回家啦!好开心~ 


不知不觉,就在医院住了5个晚上。

回到家,有时间,好好研究这五天在医院我到底吸取了多少 drugs,尤其是那些抗生素。

1. Hydrocortisone 100mg
Source: 
https://www.webmd.com/drugs/2/drug-6829/hydrocortisone-sodium-succinate-injection/details

https://www.medicines.org.uk/emc/product/7812/smpc

This medication is used to treat various conditions such as arthritis, severe allergiesblooddiseases, breathing problems, certain cancers, eye diseases, intestinal disorders, and skindiseases. It weakens your immune system's response to various diseases to reduce symptoms such as swelling and allergic-type reactions. Hydrocortisone may also be used with other medications to replace certain hormones if you have decreased adrenal gland function or Addison's disease. Hydrocortisone belongs to a class of drugs known as corticosteroids. 

Do not stop using this medication without consulting your doctor. Some conditions may become worse when this drug is suddenly stopped. Also, you may experience symptoms such as weaknessweight lossnauseamuscle painheadache, tiredness, dizziness.

Side effects: Paraesthesia may occur following intravenous administration and is probably related to the rate of injection. It is often localised to the genital area but in some cases may radiate over the entire body. The unpleasant and sometimes painful sensation usually passes off within a few minutes and no sequelae have been reported. The effect seems to be related to the sodium phosphate salt of hydrocortisone. 

The incidence of predictable undesirable effects, including hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal suppression correlates with the relative potency of the drug, dosage, timing of administration and the duration of treatment


2. Combivent Neb (inhaler)
Source: 
https://www.rxlist.com/combivent-drug.htm#indications_dosage

COMBIVENT Inhalation Aerosol is indicated for use in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD) on a regular aerosol bronchodilator who continue to have evidence of bronchospasm and who require a second bronchodilator.

Additional adverse reactions, reported in less than two percent of the patients in the COMBIVENT Inhalation Aerosol treatment group include edema, fatigue, hypertension, dizziness, nervousness, paresthesiatremordysphonia, insomnia, diarrhea, dry mouthdyspepsia, vomiting, arrhythmia, palpitation, tachycardiaarthralgiaangina, increased sputum, taste perversion, and urinary tract infection/dysuria.


3. Spiriva Respimat (inhaler) <-- effect="" font="" side="">
Source: https://www.spiriva.com/

SPIRIVA RESPIMAT, 2.5 mcg, and SPIRIVA HANDIHALER are long-term, once-daily, prescription maintenance medicines used to control symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by relaxing your airways and keeping them open. COPD includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema. SPIRIVA RESPIMAT and SPIRIVA HANDIHALER also reduce the likelihood of flare-ups (COPD exacerbations).

SPIRIVA RESPIMAT, 1.25 mcg, is a long-term, once-daily, prescription maintenance treatment of asthma for people 6 years and older.

SPIRIVA is not a treatment for sudden symptoms of asthma or COPD.

SPIRIVA RESPIMAT or SPIRIVA HANDIHALER can cause allergic reactions. Symptoms can include raised red patches on your skin (hives), itching, rash and/or swelling of the lips, tongue, or throat that may cause difficulty in breathing or swallowing. If you have any of these symptoms, stop taking the medicine and seek emergency medical care.

Before using SPIRIVA HANDIHALER, tell your doctor if you have a severe allergy to milk proteins.

SPIRIVA RESPIMAT or SPIRIVA HANDIHALER can cause your breathing to suddenly get worse (bronchospasm). If this happens, use your rescue inhaler, stop taking SPIRIVA, and call your doctor right away or seek emergency medical care.

SPIRIVA RESPIMAT or SPIRIVA HANDIHALER can increase the pressure in your eyes (acute narrow-angle glaucoma) which can cause the following symptoms: eye pain, blurred vision, seeing halos or colored images along with red eyes. If you have any of these symptoms, stop taking your medicine and call your doctor right away.

Dizziness and blurred vision may occur with SPIRIVA RESPIMAT or SPIRIVA HANDIHALER. If you experience these symptoms, use caution when engaging in activities such as driving a car, or operating appliances or machinery.

SPIRIVA RESPIMAT or SPIRIVA HANDIHALER can cause new or worsened urinary retention. Symptoms of blockage in your bladder and/or enlarged prostate may include difficulty passing urine and/or painful urination. If you have any of these symptoms, stop taking your medicine and call your doctor right away.

The most common side effects reported with SPIRIVA RESPIMAT in patients with COPD include sore throat, cough, dry mouth, and sinus infection.

The most common side effects with SPIRIVA RESPIMAT in adult patients with asthma were sore throat, headache, bronchitis, and sinus infection. The side effect profile for adolescent and pediatric patients was comparable to that observed in adult patients with asthma.

The most common side effects reported with SPIRIVA HANDIHALER in patients with COPD include upper respiratory tract infection, dry mouth, sinus infection, sore throat, non-specific chest pain, urinary tract infection, indigestion, runny nose, constipation, increased heart rate, and blurred vision.


4. Symbicort Turbuhaler (powdered inhaler, need to rinse the mouth after suction)
Source: 
https://medbroadcast.com/drug/getdrug/symbicort-turbuhaler

This medication is used to treat reversible obstructive airways disease, often known as asthma. When combined, these medications help to control the symptoms of asthma and prevent asthma attacks by keeping the airways open to make breathing easier.

It is also used for maintenance treatment of moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), including emphysema and chronic bronchitis.

For asthma treatment, budesonide - formoterol can be used for maintenance therapy or for maintenance plus reliever therapy.

The starting dose of budesonide - formoterol is based on control of your symptoms. After asthma symptoms are controlled, your doctor will adjust your dose to the lowest regular dose that prevents asthma symptoms.

Do not use this medication if you are allergic to budesonide, formoterol, or inhaled lactose.

A side effect is an unwanted response to a medication when it is taken in normal doses. Side effects can be mild or severe, temporary or permanent.

The side effects listed below are not experienced by everyone who takes this medication. 

If you are concerned about side effects, discuss the risks and benefits of this medication with your doctor.

The following side effects have been reported by at least 1% of people taking this medication. Many of these side effects can be managed, and some may go away on their own over time.
  • awareness of heartbeat or fast heartbeat
  • cough
  • dizziness
  • headache
  • hoarseness
  • irritation of the mouth or throat
  • muscle cramps
  • nausea
  • restlessness or nervousness
  • tremor
  • trouble sleeping

Check with your doctor as soon as possible if any of the following side effects occur:
  • agitation
  • bone pain or fractures
  • chest pain
  • chest tightness
  • fast or irregular heartbeat
  • flu-like symptoms (sudden lack of energy, fever, cough, sore throat) that includes rash, pins and needles sensation, worsening breathing problems)
  • mood or mental changes
  • signs of depression (e.g., poor concentration, changes in weight, changes in sleep, decreased interest in activities, thoughts of suicide)
  • skin rash or hives all over the body
  • symptoms of cataracts (e.g., clouding of the lens in the eye, blurred vision, eye pain)
  • symptoms of increased pressure in the eyes (e.g., decreased or blurred vision, eye pain, red eye, swelling of the eye)
  • symptoms of high blood sugar (e.g., frequent urination, increased thirst, excessive eating, unexplained weight loss, poor wound healing, infections, fruity breath odour)
  • symptoms of pneumonia (e.g.,  fever or chills, shortness of breath, fatigue, chest pain, cough)
  • symptoms of too much corticosteroid in the body (e.g., rapid weight gain, round “moon” face, excess sweating, thinning skin, easy bruising, muscle and bone weakness)
  • unusual colour, amount, or consistency of phlegm
  • white patches in the mouth or throat (thrush)

Stop taking the medication and seek immediate medical attention if any of the following occur:
  • breathlessness when resting
  • sudden wheezing and chest pain or tightness immediately after using the medication
  • signs of a severe allergic reaction (e.g., swelling of face, lips, tongue, throat, or eyelids, difficulty swallowing, breathing, or speaking)
  • worsening breathing symptoms even after using your reliever medication

5. Zithromax 250mg TAB 
Source: 
https://www.medicinenet.com/azithromycin_250500mg_tablets-oral/article.htm

USES: Azithromycin is used to treat a wide variety of bacterial infections. It is a macrolide-type antibiotic. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria.This medication will not work for viral infections (such as common coldflu). Unnecessary use or misuse of any antibiotic can lead to its decreased effectiveness.

SIDE EFFECTS: Stomach upset, diarrhea/loose stools, nauseavomiting, or abdominal pain may occur. If any of these effects persist or worsen, tell your doctor or pharmacist promptly.Remember that your doctor has prescribed this medication because he or she has judged that the benefit to you is greater than the risk of side effects. Many people using this medication do not have serious side effects.Tell your doctor right away if any of these unlikely but serious side effects occur: hearing changes (such as decreased hearing, deafness), eye problems (such as drooping eyelids, blurred vision), difficulty speaking/swallowing, muscle weakness, signs of liver problems (such as unusual tiredness, persistent nausea/vomiting, severe stomach/abdominal pain, yellowing eyes/skin, dark urine).Get medical help right away if any of these rare but serious side effects occur: fast/irregular heartbeat, severe dizzinessfainting.This medication may rarely cause a severe intestinal condition (Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea) due to a resistant bacteria. This condition may occur during treatment or weeks to months after treatment has stopped. 

Do not use anti-diarrhea products or narcotic pain medications if you have any of the following symptoms because these products may make them worse. Tell your doctor immediately if you develop: persistent diarrhea, abdominal or stomach pain/cramping, blood/mucus in your stool.Use of this medication for prolonged or repeated periods may result in oral thrush or a new yeast infection. Contact your doctor if you notice white patches in your mouth, a change in vaginal discharge, or other new symptoms.A very serious allergic reactionto this drug is rare. However, get medical help right away if you notice any symptoms of a serious allergic reaction, including: rashitching/swelling (especially of the face/tongue/throat), severe dizziness, trouble breathing.An allergic reaction to this medication may return even if you stop the drug. 


6. Controloc 40mg TAB (Gastro-resistant tablet)

Source: 
https://www.webmd.com/drugs/2/drug-17633/pantoprazole-oral/details

Pantoprazole is used to treat certain stomach and esophagus problems (such as acid reflux). It works by decreasing the amount of acid your stomach makes. This medication relieves symptoms such as heartburn, difficulty swallowing, and persistent cough. It helps heal acid damage to the stomach and esophagus, helps prevent ulcers, and may help prevent cancer of the esophagus. Pantoprazole belongs to a class of drugs known as proton pump inhibitors (PPIs).


7. Rocephin-IV 1G Injection (Ceftriaxone)
Source: 
https://www.webmd.com/drugs/2/drug-9768/rocephin-intravenous/details

Ceftriaxone is used to treat a wide variety of bacterial infections. This medication belongs to a class of drugs known as cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria.

This drug is not recommended for use in newborns with high blood bilirubin levels and premature infants due to increased risk of side effects. 

Side Effects
Swelling, redness, or pain at the injection site may occur. 
This medication may rarely cause a severe intestinal condition (Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea) due to a type of resistant bacteria. This condition may occur during treatment or weeks to months after treatment has stopped. Tell your doctor right away if you develop: diarrhea that doesn't stop, abdominal or stomach pain/cramping, blood/mucus in your stool.
Do not use anti-diarrhea products or narcotic pain medications if you have any of these symptoms because these products may make them worse.


8. Meronem 1G Injection
Source: 
https://www.medicines.org.uk/emc/product/5904/smpc

Meropenem is indicated for the treatment of the following infections in adults and children over 3 months of age (see sections 4.4 and 5.1):

  • Severe pneumonia, including hospital and ventilator-associated pneumonia.
  • Broncho-pulmonary infections in cystic fibrosis
  • Complicated urinary tract infections
  • Complicated intra-abdominal infections
  • Intra- and post-partum infections
  • Complicated skin and soft tissue infections
  • Acute bacterial meningitis


Treatment of patients with bacteraemia that occurs in association with, or is suspected to be associated with, any of the infections listed above.

Meropenem may be used in the management of neutropenic patients with fever that is suspected to be due to a bacterial infection.

Consideration should be given to official guidance on the appropriate use of antibacterial agents.


9. Heparinized Saline Injection
这个主要是 “通血管” 作用的。因为针筒扎的位子血管可能会有 clot,所以这个是用来通血管的。注入时,没有抗生素痛,冰凉的感觉而已。
Source: 
https://www.nps.org.au/medical-info/medicine-finder/heparinised-saline-injection

Heparinised Saline Injection belongs to a group of medicines known as anticoagulants. Anticoagulants work by decreasing the clotting ability of your blood and help stop clots forming in the blood vessels. Anticoagulants are sometimes called "blood thinners", although they do not actually thin the blood. Heparin will not dissolve blood clots that have already formed, but it may prevent any clots that have already formed from becoming larger and causing serious problems.

Heparinised Saline Injection is used to prevent the blocking of injection equipment often caused by blood clots.

Do not use Heparinised Saline Injection if you:

  • have an allergy to heparin or pork products
  • have, or may have, a bleeding disease or a problem with your blood vessels
  • have low blood platelet count

10. Prednisolone 5mg TAB
Source: 
https://healthy.kaiserpermanente.org/health/care/consumer/health-wellness/drugs-and-natural-medicines/drug-encyclopedia/medicine-information/!ut/p/a1/fc5BT4MwFMDxz7IDR-lj3aB461jEgjDMiGIvhs2uI2GUdN3Ivr2AeDBR360vv_7zEEcF4k15rWRpKtWU9fDm7nsObLNaORTAYUtgWUTSNSFzCDB6RRHisla7Eb8djWnvLbDgQ1-kaPa3u1ZpUwtjAeLDjq1R4RDP98jAabPDRCKuxUFooe2L7itD4zxGuq6zpVKyFvZenfrEL1-O6mxQ8VP2V_H_D4cJPETbL7BZ-ARYEjwGLI0BQm8CGQVGElg6QLELzM1x7CWpA-FiAoDZ81gIMxd6G-fxix9jgPk3-GMooPZEbri-Ph22rGJ0NvsEBu7LmA!!/dl5/d5/L2dBISEvZ0FBIS9nQSEh/

Prednisone is used to treat conditions such as arthritis, blood disorders, breathing problems, severe allergies, skin diseases, cancer, eye problems, and immune system disorders. Prednisone belongs to a class of drugs known as corticosteroids. It decreases your immune system's response to various diseases to reduce symptoms such as swelling and allergic-type reactions.

Side effects
Nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, heartburn, trouble sleeping, increased sweating, or acne may occur. 

Many people using this medication do not have serious side effects.Tell your doctor right away if any of these unlikely but serious side effects occur: muscle pain/cramps, irregular heartbeat, weakness, swelling hands/ankles/feet, unusual weight gain, signs of infection (such as fever, persistent sore throat), vision problems (such as blurred vision), vomit that looks like coffee grounds, black/bloody stools, severe stomach/abdominal pain, mental/mood changes (such as depression, mood swings, agitation), slow wound healing, thinning skin, bone pain, menstrual period changes, puffy face, seizures, easy bruising/bleeding.This medication may rarely make your blood sugar rise, which can cause or worsen diabetes. 



11. Klacid-MR 500mg TAB
Source: 
https://www.myvmc.com/drugs/klacid/

Klacid is used to treat certain bacterial infections, such as respiratory tract infections, skin infections, peptic ulcer.

Klacid is also used to prevent a specific bacterial infection associated with HIV infection.

Your doctor, however, may have prescribed Klacid for another purpose.

Ask your doctor if you have any questions about why Klacid has been prescribed for you. Klacid is available only with a doctor’s prescription. 

Side effects of Klacid 
  • Stomach cramps and pains;
  • Nausea, vomiting and severe diarrhoea;
  • Oral thrush or vaginal thrush;
  • Change in taste sensation;
  • Headache;
  • Asthma, shortness of breath.
Tell your doctor immediately if you notice any of the following as you may need urgent medical care:
  • Yellowing of the eyes or skin (jaundice);
  • Feeling generally unwell and having poor appetite;
  • Hearing disturbances;
  • Chest pain;
  • Dizziness, confusion, hallucinations, convulsions;
  • Fainting, irregular heart beat;
  • Any type of skin rash, itching, hives;
  • Severe diarrhoea, especially if bloody;
  • Severe upper stomach pain, with nausea and vomiting (pancreatitis).
Stop taking Klacid and tell your doctor immediately or go to casualty at your nearest hospital if any of the following happen:
  • Swelling to the face, lips, mouth, throat or neck which may cause difficulty in swallowing or breathing or sudden collapse. 

12. Oseltamivir 75mg CAP (TAMIFLU)
Source: 
https://www.drugs.com/oseltamivir.html

Oseltamivir is an antiviral medication that blocks the actions of influenza virus types A and B in your body.

Oseltamivir is used to treat influenza in people 2 weeks of age and older who have had flu symptoms for 2 days or less. Oseltamivir may also be given to prevent influenza in people who are at least 1 year old, who may be exposed but do not yet have symptoms. This medicine will not treat the common cold.

Do not use oseltamivir to prevent influenza in a child younger than 1 year old. Do not use this medicine to treat influenza in a child younger than 2 weeks old.

Tell your doctor if you have ever had:
  • kidney disease (or if you are on dialysis);
  • heart disease or chronic lung disease;
  • a condition causing swelling or disorder of the brain;
  • a weak immune system (caused by disease or by using certain medicine);
  • hereditary fructose intolerance; or
  • if you have used a nasal flu vaccine (FluMist) within the past 2 weeks.

Get emergency medical help if you have signs of an allergic reaction to oseltamivir (hives, difficult breathing, swelling in your face or throat) or a severe skin reaction (fever, sore throat, burning eyes, skin pain, red or purple skin rash with blistering and peeling).
Some people using oseltamivir (especially children) have had sudden unusual changes in mood or behavior. It is not certain that this medicine is the exact cause of these symptoms. Even without using oseltamivir, anyone with influenza can have neurologic or behavioral symptoms. Call your doctor right away if the person using this medicine has:
  • sudden confusion;
  • tremors or shaking;
  • unusual behavior; or
  • hallucinations (hearing or seeing things that are not there).
Common oseltamivir side effects may include:
  • nausea, vomiting;
  • headache; or
  • pain.

就这样,12种不同的药物,就在短短的五天之内注入了我的体内。
好可怕啊。。。

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